Yoshiko Kawashima (川島芳子, Kawashima Yoshiko, 24 May 1907 – 25 March 1948) was a Chinese princess of Manchu descent. She was raised in Japan and served as a spy for the Japanese Kwantung Army and puppet state of Manchukuo during the Second Sino-Japanese War. She is sometimes known in fiction under the pseudonym "Eastern Mata Hari". After the war, she was captured, tried and executed as a traitor by the Nationalist government of the Republic of China. She was also a notable descendant of Hooge (prince), eldest son of Huangtaiji.
Kawashima was born in the Aisin Gioro clan, the imperial clan of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty. Her birth name was Xianyu and her courtesy name was Dongzhen (literally "eastern jewel"). Her Sinicised name was Jin Bihui. She is best known by her Japanese name, Kawashima Yoshiko (Chuandao Fangzi).
Kawashima was born in Beijing in 1907 as the 14th daughter of Shanqi (善耆; 1866–1922), a Manchu prince of the Aisin Gioro clan, the imperial clan of China's Qing dynasty. Her mother was one of Shanqi's concubines. Shanqi was a descendant of Hooge, the eldest son of Huangtaiji (the second ruler of the Qing dynasty). Shanqi was also the tenth heir to the Prince Su peerage, one of the 12 "iron-cap" princely peerages of the Qing dynasty.