Henry Alfred Kissinger (/ˈkɪsɪndʒər/; born Heinz Alfred Kissinger ; May 27, 1923) is an American diplomat and political scientist who served as the Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Born in Germany, Kissinger was a Jewish refugee who fled the Nazi regime with his family in 1938. He became National Security Advisor in 1969 and later concurrently United States Secretary of State in 1973. For his actions negotiating a ceasefire in Vietnam, Kissinger received the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize under controversial circumstances, with two members of the committee resigning in protest. Kissinger later sought, unsuccessfully, to return the prize after the ceasefire failed. After his term, his advice has been sought by world leaders including subsequent U.S. presidents.